“Reflecting on the Language We Use” by Rosie Duivenbode

Available at: “ISLAMIC HORIZONS” (JANUARY/FEBRUARY 2018 EDITION, PAGE 54) Abstract: In this article Rosie Duivenbode advocates against using the loaded term “FGM”. She also challenges the slogan that “Islam has nothing to do with FGM”. She stresses the need for honest and open intra-community dialogue and systematic research into the practice of female circumcision. To do […]

Who Speaks for the Indonesian Female Circumcision? Vesna Bočko

“Khitan Perempuan: Who Speaks for the Indonesian Female Circumcision?”, by Vesna Bočko Available at: https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/eas.2016.16.issue-2/eas-2017-0004/eas-2017-0004.pdf Abstract: Throughout the paper the author focuses on the ritual of female circumcision in Indonesian Java, more specifically in the city of Yogyakarta. By the help of fieldwork and academic literature she examines this not merely taboo but also legally […]

Cosmetic Surgeries & Female Circumcision

Female genital alterations, performed for cosmetic reasons, receive no censure from the WHO and are legal. These procedures are performed mainly for aesthetic, non-medically indicated reasons, to affirm culturally specific feelings of self-worth and definitions of beauty. These procedures, legally performed on minor children, can include piercing, clitoral unhooding or hoodectomy, the removal of parts […]

The Protection of or Violation of Human Rights?

This paper argues that WHO wrongly classifies all female circumcision as FGM. It clearly details the limits of the practice of female circumcision and deconstructs the WHO’s reasoning behind their incorrect conflation of female circumcision with FGM. The article claims that WHO relies on an “overly-simplified, culturally-insensitive, and…imperialist approach” in defining the practice of female […]

Illiberal Liberalism: How to Explain the Clash of Western Feminism and Female Genital Circumcision

This article aims to show how Western liberal thinking has in large part shaped the negative discourse regarding the practice of female genital cutting, or FGC, without giving adequate space to the facts and opinions owned by the actual cultures that practice it. While Western feminism is certainly justified in exercising its beliefs within its own domain, the application of Western thought to non-Western cultures skews not only the practice and meaning behind it, but also the entire basis for what is considered morally “right.” By investigating some of the major points of contention surrounding the FGC debate, this paper brings to light the importance of embracing third-wave or intersectional feminism as the most appropriate avenue to discuss issues regarding diverse cultural groups.